It's all based on risk analysis. The insurers have actuaries working out these things for them. For example, with streets, the quieter the street the lower the premium, with cul-de-sacs being the lowest in an urban setting. If you think about it, there is far less through traffic, and strangers are more likely noticed, so lower crime rates, lower traffic accidents, etc.
For health insurance, you can be sure it is based on actuarial work from available health data.
Additionally, the more information that is gathered by the Government and businesses, and the more information we put out there (for example using social media), the more data mining that will occur, and the more the insurers, and others can refine their data.
So there are reasons, from the insurers' point of view at least, for the varying premium rates.