An NBN Wiki

The nbn™, NBN Co and things you should know


I have put this together to try and provide as much information in one place about the nbn™ so that everyone can at least find most information without searching through many topics. I have divided it up into sections but in some cases there will be overlap. (This project is ongoing and there will be edits) Feel free to add information but please, if you wish to discuss an item or items please create a new topic and link to the issue/s.


The following list from A: to W: comes from the nbn™ Website. (E&OE).


Access Aggregation Region (AAR):
The area served by a Point of Interconnect (PoI) located in an Aggregation Node (AN) and connected via Trunk Fibre to regional Fibre Access Node (FAN) sites. The backhaul from the regional FAN to the AN is termed Transit Backhaul.

Access Seekers
A generic term that refers to customers of NBN Co’s network, be they Retail Service Providers (RSPs) or Wholesale Service Providers (WSPs).

Aggregated Ethernet Bitstream (AEB)
One of two Layer 2 bitstream products to be offered by NBN Co (the other being LEB - Local Ethernet Bitstream). The AEB product enables aggregated access to one or more Fibre Serving Areas (FSAs) via an aggregated link. The LEB product will not be available in locations where the AEB product is made available.

Aggregation Node (AN):
A facility that provides a Point of Interconnect to RSPs/WSPs for an Access Aggregation Region (AAR), comprising a number of regional Fibre Access Node (FAN) sites. Note that an AN will also have a co-located Fibre Access Node (FAN) site for it’s local area.

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
ADSL is a type of DSL broadband communications technology used for connecting to the Internet. ADSL allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS), when compared to traditional modem lines.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
ATM is a standardised digital data transmission technology.


Backhaul typically refers to the mid-to-long-distance transport of data from a series of disparate locations back to a more centralised location. This transport may involve some level of concentration (also referred to as aggregation).

Bandwidth refers to how fast data flows through the path that it travels to your computer. It is usually measured in kilobits, megabits or gigabits per second.

A generic term often used to describe low-complexity data transmission products.

Broadband is a term used to refer to ‘always on’ high speed Internet. In the past, broadband services and technologies were defined in terms of a capability to transfer information at higher rates than traditional dial-up services. Today broadband is more commonly associated with the speeds equal to or greater than those provided by Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), that is, a minimum download speed of 265 kbps and minimum upload speed of 64 kbps


Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
The computer, modem and wiring at a customer’s premises.


Distribution Fibre
The fibre between the Fibre Distribution Hub (FDH) and the Fibre Access Node (FAN), for both regional FANs and the metro FANs, as well as the connectivity between the non adjacent Fibre Serving Area Modules in the capital cities and the metro FANs. Distribution Fibre routes are designed in a ring structure to minimise the impact of any fibre break on consumer services as well as providing diverse paths for protected commercial point to point services.

Distribution Network
Refers to the network of Distribution Fibres.

A download is any activity that transfers data to your computer from another one. Viewing a web page is downloading, because all the words, pictures and links on that page have to be transferred to your computer and contributes to any download limits placed on your account by your Internet service provider. Other activities like retrieving emails, listening to music, watching a video or chatting online are also downloads.

Drop Fibre
The fibre from the Network Access Point (NAP) to the termination point at individual premises.

DSL - Digital subscriber line
DSL is a group of technologies, the most common being asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL). DSL uses your existing telephone line to deliver high-speed Internet access. It allows voice communication and high-speed data transmission on the same line at the same time.


A common method of networking computers in a local area network (LAN) using a variety of forms of cabling. Ethernet supports retail service provider (RSP) service differentiation as a result of a ubiquitous interface. It facilitates competition and choice as is able to support multiple services and RSPs on the same physical interface, when necessary. It offers flexibility and substantial bandwidth. It supports security and grades of QoS.

Ethernet Aggregation Switch (EAS)
The equipment that provides aggregation of FSAs to an AN for each retail service provider (RSP) and wholesale service provider (WSP).

Ethernet Fanout Switch (EFS)
The equipment that provides port fanout/expansion between the Point of Interconnect (POI) and the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) for each retail service provider (RSP) and wholesale service provider (WSP).


Fibre Access Node (FAN)
A facility that houses the active equipment providing services to a Fibre Serving Area (FSA).

Fibre Distribution Area (FDA)
The area served via a single Fibre Distribution Hub (FDH) which connects addresses to the serving FAN site(s) via Local Fibre.

Fibre Distribution Hub (FDH)
A facility that houses the optical splitters.

Fibre Serving Area (FSA)
The area served by a Fibre Access Node (FAN) site, which will be a cluster of Fibre Distribution Area (FDA). The FDAs will be connected via Distribution Fibre.


Geocoded National Address File (GNAF)
The authoritative address index for Australia, produced by PSMA Australia Limited.

Gigabit Passive Optical Networking (GPON)
An optical-access system based on Internet Protocol (IP) that lets multiple homes or businesses in a neighbourhood share fibre from a service provider’s central office.


IP Addressing
Refers to the addressing scheme for the Internet Protocol.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
An organisation that offers access to the Internet to its customer.


Or delay refers to how much time it takes for data to get from one designated point to another.

Local Ethernet Bitstream (LEB)
One of two Layer 2 bitstream products to be offered by NBN Co (the other being AEB - Aggregated Ethernet Bitstream)

Local Fibre
The connection between the Fibre Distribution Hubs (FDHs) and the individual premises via a series of radial fibre cables containing Network Access Points (NAPs), then a Drop Fibre to the building.


Multi Dwelling Unit (MDU)
Typically refers to blocks of flats, apartments etc.


Network Access Point (NAP)
The NAP is the point on a local fibre cable where the drop cable is connected.


Open Access Network (OAN)
The horizontally layered network architecture and business model that separates physical access to the network from service provisioning. The same OAN will be used by a number of different providers that share the investments and maintenance cost.

Open access networks can be used to deploy next-generation broadband networks in low population density areas where service providers cannot obtain a sufficient return on investment to cover the high costs associated with trenching, right-of-way encroachment permits, and the requisite network infrastructure. In contrast to traditional municipal networks where the municipality owns the network and there is only one service provider, the open access model allows multiple service providers to compete over the same network at wholesale prices. In theory, this allows service providers to make money in the short-term and the municipality or cooperative to recoup its costs over the long-term. The build-out and infrastructure is typically financed through low-cost bonds.

Optical Distribution Frame (ODF)
Refers to a patching frame for optical fibres.

Optical Line Terminal (OLT)
The terminal equipment to provide the Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) signals to each of the Fibre Distribution Areas (FDAs).

Optical Network Terminal (ONT)
Refer to the NBN Co. termination point on each premises, for residential service providing (typically) 4 ethernet, 1 telephone and 1 co-axial ports.

Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model
OSI Reference Model or OSI Model is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. It divides network architecture into seven layers - Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers.

OSI Layers
A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives service from the layer below it.

Optical Transport Platform (OTP)
The optical transmission equipment providing data transport between Fibre Access Node (FAN) sites.


Passive Optical Network (PON)
PON is a point-to-multipoint, fibre to the premises network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters utilizing Brewster’s angle principles are used to enable a single optical fibre to serve multiple premises, typically 32-128. A PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the service provider’s central office and a number of optical network units (ONUs) near end users. A PON configuration reduces the amount of fibre and central office equipment required compared with point to point architectures.

Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)
POTS refers to the standard telephone service. In contrast, telephone services based on high-speed, digital communication lines are not POTS. The main distinctions between POTS and non-POTS services are speed and bandwidth. POTS is generally restricted to about 52 Kbps.

Point of Interconnect (PoI)
The connection point that allows retail service providers (RSPs) and wholesale service providers (WSPs) to connect to NBN Co access capability.

Point-to-Point Fibre
In contrast to Passive Optical Network (PON), the provision of services to a premises by a non-shared fibre from the Fibre Access Node (FAN).

Post Office Protocol (POP-1)
This refers to the way that email software gets mail from a mail server. Accounts with an ISP will always have a POP account to enable you to send and receive emails.

Point of Presence (POP-2)
This usually means a town or location where a network can be connected.

A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers must follow to exchange those messages. Protocols can describe low level details of machine to machine interfaces (e.g. the order in which bits are sent through a connection) or high level exchanges between programs (e.g. the way in which two programs transfer a file across the Internet).

Point to Point Protocol (PPP) is the most common protocol used to connect home computers to the Internet over standard telephone lines. Variations include Point to Point Protocol over ATM (PPPOA) and Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPOE ).


Quality of Service (QoS)
QoS refers to a wide range of networking technologies and techniques. The goal of QoS is to provide guarantees on the ability of a network to deliver predictable results. Network performance within the scope of QoS can include availability, bandwidth, latency and error rate.


Speed Tiers

Speed tiers are the upload and download speeds that are offered to users on the MTM NBN. There are currently 4 tiers that most users see and they are:

This is a very basic service with 12 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload. Mostly used if a user requires only telephone service or has very basic internet needs. It is adequate for streaming1 High Definition (HD) show but Standard Definition (SD) may provide a better experience. The speed tier compares well to what most would have seen on the old ADSL2+ connections.

It may also be known as “Basic” and is best suited to light use.

The speed levels of this tier are 25 Mbps download and 5 Mbps upload.

This is the guaranteed level of speeds under the MTM NBN, this means if a service cannot achieve this speed NBN Co are required to remediate the service so that it can achieve this level of service. This remediation may include a change of type of service to the premises eg to Satellite to achieve the minimum standard of speed. Please note it only has to achieve this level not maintain it, so if a service once a day peaks at the level for a short period it is considered to meet the guidelines and does not need to maintain this speed. This speed tier should allow general use of the internet and allows most to stream 1 or 2 shows at HD level if it is able to maintain the speed.

It may also be known as “Standard” and probably best suited to small households.

This speed tier is 50 Mbps download and 20 Mbps upload. This speed tier is currently the most popular speed package on the MTM NBN. If the speeds can be maintain it is good for a household that has a moderate amount of connected devices and allows streaming of at least 2 simultaneous shows at the HD standard plus other internet use at the same time.

It may also be known as “Standard Plus” and is probably suited to larger households/families

This is currently the highest speed offered by most RSPs to their consumers, it is 100 Mbps download and 40 Mbps upload. This speed is able to support having more connected devices in a household. 4K UHD streaming is well catered for.

It may also be known as “Premium” and is best suited to intensive internet use.

New tiers currently (2019) being considered are 100/20 Mbps, 250/25 Mbps & 1000/50 Mbps. Only those on FTTP & HFC with a possibility of HTTC will be able to access the higher 2 tiers and the 100/20 is being considered for all connection types.


Transit Fibre
Refers to the connection between Points of Interconnect (PoIs) in the Aggregation Nodes where the retail service providers connect to nbn™, and the non-local FANs.


Universal Service Guarantee (USG)
The USO (see entry below) will in 2020 be replaced by the USG which will be the obligation that mandates the right to access for Voice and Broadband services for all Australians. Most of this obligation will be met through the nbn™ via it’s network. In very remote or difficult places this will likely be provided by Satellite which has difficulty in providing good voice services. Currently (2018) there is a review that includes public consultation being undertaken by the USO Taskforce. Some of the areas of review being looked at are:

"As part of this work, the Taskforce is examining the feasibility and cost implications of a number of key issues, including:

  • Alternative means of providing voice services to premises in nbn™’s satellite footprint, recognising that nbn™ satellites are designed for broadband and not voice services.
  • The potential impact on nbn™ costs and network design if premises currently serviced by Telstra under the USO migrate to NBN Co infrastructure.
  • Where and when it may be appropriate for Telstra to reduce the number of payphones provided under the USO."

Universal Service Obligation (USO)
This is the obligation that required Telstra to ensure standard telephone services (STS) and payphones were reasonably accessible to all people in Australia on an equitable basis, wherever they worked or lived. In 2020 it will finally be replaced with the USG (Universal Service Guarantee). In 2018 the USO is still in force but as premises are moved to the nbn™ and similar services the copper based infrastructure that provides the current Telstra based USO Voice service is being replaced by VOIP. Telstra are still obliged to provide Voice services under the USO but they can provide it by any means they deem suitable which includes Satellite connection (which the nbn™ Satellites are not really designed to provide).

From the Telstra page on this obligation:
"A USO STS includes the following features:

  • Access to local, national and international calls
  • Untimed local calls
  • 24 hour free access to emergency service numbers
  • Priority assistance (for those with a life threatening medical condition)
  • Customer service Guarantee (acceptable connection and repair timeframes)
  • A unique telephone number with or without a directory listing.
  • Preselection (which allows the user to preselect another provider for long distance, fixed to mobile and international calls where the STS is provided over our copper network)
  • Calling line identification
  • Operator and directory assistance and,
  • Itemised billing.

You can request that we provide a standard telephone handset on request for an additional cost. We also provide people with hearing, speech, vision, dexterity or mobility impairments with an alternative form of communication including equipment necessary to use this service. For more information see our disability products and services.

Our national pricing ensures that customers in remote areas pay the same price for an STS as our customers in cities. While this service has traditionally been provided as a fixed line telephone service, our obligation is technology neutral meaning we can choose the technology over which we provide you with this service. For example in some remote areas we provide customers with an STS over satellite."


Wave Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM PON)
Refers to an emerging Passive Optical Network (PON) technology that will provide greater speed and capability.

Wholesale Service Provider (WSP)
See Retail Service Providers (RSPs)

The following are not from the nbn™ website but may have parts from it. The items are in no particular order:

Brownfields refers to established areas where the nbn™ is being rolled out.

Greenfields refers to new estates where fibre can be built alongside other utilities as the area is developed. Sky Muster Satellite connections are also all Greenfields

Optic Fibre & Fibre Core types: (From Datatel’s Website)
Fibre optic cable is made by injecting chemical vapours into a glass rod. This is then superheated until the vapours turn into glass themselves, which becomes the core of the fibre. This final glass rod, called a pre-form, is then stretched under heat to a 125 micron (µm) wide optic fibre, about the thickness of a human hair.

The resultant optic fibre comes in several different core types

OM1 62.5 micron multimode fibre
OM3 50 micron multimode fibre
OM4 50 micron multimode fibre
OS1 9 micron singlemode fibre
OS2 9 micron singlemode fibre

Each fibre type has different advantages and disadvantages, and while some of these fibre types are compatible with each other, most are not.

If you wish to read more about the NBN Co Fibre Network design there is a PDF of the NBN Co submission to the ACCC in 2011 that is very detailed and interesting (albeit technical).

Multimode Optical Fibre:
Multi-mode optical fibre is a type of optical fibre mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus. Typical multi-mode links have data rates of 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s over link lengths of up to 600 metres (2000 feet). Multi-mode fibre has a fairly large core diameter that enables multiple light modes to be propagated and limits the maximum length of a transmission link because of modal dispersion.

Single Mode Optical Fibre:
A typical single-mode optical fibre has a core diameter between 8 and 10.5 µm and a cladding diameter of 125 µm. There are a number of special types of single-mode optical fibre which have been chemically or physically altered to give special properties, such as dispersion-shifted fibre and nonzero dispersion-shifted fibre. Data rates are limited by polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion. As of 2005, data rates of up to 10 gigabits per second were possible at distances of over 80 km (50 mi) with commercially available transceivers (Xenpak). By using optical amplifiers and dispersion-compensating devices, state-of-the-art DWDM optical systems can span thousands of kilometers at 10 Gbit/s, and several hundred kilometers at 40 Gbit/s.

Node/s & Micro Nodes:
A node is an nbn™ connection point for up to 384 premises. Copper lines are typically connected across from nearby pillars or Telstra cable pits and they terminate on the Alcatel-Lucent module inside, which on this side is essentially a set of 384 VDSL modems. Basically, at this point the 384 copper lines are aggregated onto optical fibre and that goes back to the next point in the network. The node requires a power supply and also contains backup batteries. They are normally a green-grey sort of colour and 850mm wide x 1150mm high x 500mm deep with ventilation holes.

Picture of a Node

A Micro-Node can connect up to 100 FTTN connections. It can do the cross connect work internally, so it doesn’t need a pillar. It is usually used when you are too far from the node to make services work and there are no available pillars.

Picture of a Micro Node

Retail Service Provider (RSP):
These are the businesses that sell you the access to the internet via the nbn™. Companies such as Telstra, TPG, Optus and many others are RSPs and some of these are also Wholesale Service Providers (WSPs) to smaller RSPs. The retail network service providers and application/content service providers are those that provide services to end users and have a direct customer relationship with the end users. Any that also or are WSPs do not have this consumer relationship in their role as a WSP.

Very-high-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. The latest technology protocol enabling broadband on copper wires. An evolution of ADSL2.

International Transit:
Refers to the “pipelines” we have to overseas (mostly undersea Optic Fibre cabling). There is also a Transit Network within Australia and the following comes from NBN Co:

“nbn™ uses the Transit Network to send our own data to the 121 POIs – including things like orders for new services – which should increase substantially as we move towards the planned 8 million connected homes and businesses by 2020. The nbn™ Transit Network also sends our data back to our two nbn™ data centres.

However, the Transit Network is also connected to our local Fibre Access Nodes (FANs), which carry traffic to end-user premises, meaning that nbn™ needs to make sure we are able to provide plenty of capacity to carry that traffic.”

The National Broadband Network Corporation (NBN Co):
This is currently a Government owned corporation that owns the National Broadband Network.

Multi Technology Mix National Broadband Network (MTM NBN):
Will be hereafter referred to nbn™ unless needed to explain a particular version eg Rudd’s NBN. This is the network that runs from your home to the RSP’s network

Speed Tiers:
Current Speed Tiers available to domestic consumers are 12/1 Mbps, 25/5 Mbps, 50/20 Mbps & 100/40 Mbps. Not all types of nbn™ connection will have all speed tiers available to them. NBN Co can also supply a 1 Gbps connection but no RSP provides that plan to consumers and currently most types of connection cannot provide that speed.

Wherever a speed tier is referenced, eg 100/40 Mbps, this is referring to the maximum speed that tier (plan) can achieve but you may not achieve that speed on your connection even though you pay for it. The figure before the / indicates download speed the figure after indicates upload speed eg 12/1 Mbps means 12 Mbps download and 1 Mbps upload.

Bytes, Bits and speeds:
Bit is a single 1 or a 0 (zero). A lower-case b is used to show a bit is meant eg Kb (kilobit)
8 bits = 1 byte. An uppercase B is used to show a byte is meant eg KB (kilobyte)
Kilobit (Kb) = 1,000 bits
Kilobyte (KB) = 1,000 bytes = 8,000 bits
Megabit (Mb) = 1,000 Kb
Megabyte (MB) = 1,000 KB
Gigabit (Gb) = 1,000 Mb
Gigabyte (GB) = 1,000 MB
Terabit = 1,000 Gb
Terabyte = 1,000 GB
Kbps: Kilobits per second
KBps: Kilobytes per second
Mbps: Megabits per second
MBps: Megabytes per second
Gbps: Gigabits per second
GBps: Gigabytes per second
Tbps: Terabits per second
TBps: Terabytes per second

For most of this discussion when talking about speeds the multiples of bits per second will used eg Mbps (Megabits per second). To get bits from bytes multiply the number by 8 and similarly to get bytes from bits divide the number by 8 eg 1,000 bits/8 = 125 bytes and 125 bytes X 8 = 1,000 bits.

The above are the standard definitions used, there are however binary multiples but they generally will not be used in the other sections of this wiki but for the sake of thoroughness they are:

kibibit (Kibit) = 1024 bits = 128 bytes
mebibit (Mibit) = 1,048,576 bits = 1024 Kibits = 128 Kibytes
gibibit (Gibit) = 1,073,741,824 bits = 1,048,576 Kibits = 1,024 Mibits
tebibit (Tibit) = 1,099,511,627,776 bits = 1,073,741,824 Kibits = 1,048,576 Mibits = 1,024 Gibits

And they have binary multiples of bytes as well eg kibibyte (Kibyte) which is 1,024 bytes = 8 Kibits = 8,192 bits. When using the binary multiple full name, the first letter is lower case eg kibibit but when the short name is used the first letter is capitalized eg Kibit.

Voice over IP (VOIP):
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. The terms Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service specifically refer to the provisioning of communications services (voice, fax, SMS, voice-messaging) over the public Internet, rather than via the public switched telephone network.

Providers other than NBN Co:
There are other providers of access to the internet other than NBN Co. For example Telstra, Optus, TPG, DGtek, OPENetworks, and Vocus have Fibre Networks. Under the federal legislation any of these services need to be open access (they must allow any RSP access to their network), if their offered speed is 25 Mbps or greater (Super Fast) and they service more than 12,000 customers.

Below is from an article on CONNECTING THE AUSTRALIAN CHANNEL (

"The ACCC has set the price retail service providers would pay at $27 per port per month plus $15.25 per Mbps per month for aggregation for wholesale access. The regulated price will apply when an agreement cannot be reached between the network owner and the wholesale customer.

The pricing cap is being put in place so that retail broadband providers will face similar pricing whether they access superfast broadband via the NBN or from other network owners.

In July 2017, the ACCC regulated that TPG and Telstra must open up their high-speed broadband networks to retail service providers.

Smaller network owners have dodged the requirement to open up their infrastructure to wholesale customers. Network owners that support fewer than 12,000 end users, such as Clublinks, Frontier Networks, Pivit, Spirit and Comverge, are exempt from the standard access requirements."



Fibre to the Basement/Building (FTTB):
Similar to FTTN below. A FTTB connection is generally used when connecting an apartment block or similar types of buildings to the nbn™ network. In this scenario, a fibre optic line is run to the building communications room - Then the existing technology in the building to is used to connect to each apartment.

The fibre node in the building communications room is likely to take the form of a secure cabinet. Each cabinet will allow the nbn™ network signal to travel over the optic fibre, to the existing network technology present in the building. This is mostly copper but some newer buildings do have fibre installed

Speeds currently available to a consumer are 12/1 Mbps, 25/5 Mbps, 50/20 Mbps and 100/40 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. Actual performance will vary based on a range of factors including the distance from the node, the quality of the copper, equipment used in the premises and the service providers’ own network. The 25/5, 50/20 and the 100/40 are considered Fast Internet connections with the 100/40 one called Super Fast. 50/20 has become more used since the ACCC made RSPs be more accurate about what speeds could be achieved.

Fibre to the Node (FTTN):
FTTN connection is utilised in circumstances where the existing copper network will be used to make the final part of the nbn™ network connection, from a nearby FTTN cabinet or micro-node to your premises.
The fibre node is likely to take the form of a street cabinet. Each street cabinet will allow the nbn™ network signal to travel over optic fibre from the exchange to the cabinet, and connect with the existing copper network to reach your premises.

Speeds currently available to a consumer are 12/1 Mbps, 25/5 Mbps, 50/20 Mbps and 100/40 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. Actual performance will vary based on a range of factors including the distance from the node, the quality of the copper, equipment used in the premises and the service providers’ own network. The 25/5, 50/20 and the 100/40 are considered Fast Internet connections with the 100/40 one called Super Fast. 50/20 has become more used since the ACCC made RSPs be more accurate about what speeds could be achieved.

Fibre to the Premises or Fibre to the Home (FTTP or FTTH):
Both are the same just the word premises is used more as it can also refer to a business address. FTTP is used in circumstances where an optic fibre line will be run from the nearest available fibre node, to your premises. FTTP also requires an nbn™ network device to be installed inside your home. This device requires power to operate and can only be installed by an approved nbn™ Installer or service provider.

Speeds currently available to a consumer are 12/1 Mbps, 25/5 Mbps, 50/20 Mbps and 100/40 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. The 25/5, 50/20 and the 100/40 are considered Fast Internet connections with the 100/40 one called Super Fast. 50/20 has become more used since the ACCC made RSPs be more accurate about what speeds could be achieved.

NBN Hybrid Fibre Coaxial (HFC):
HFC connection is used in circumstances where the existing ‘pay TV’ or cable network can be used to make the final part of the nbn™ network connection. In this circumstance, a HFC line will be run from the nearest available fibre node, to your premises.
HFC connections require an nbn™ network device to be installed at the point where the HFC line enters your home. This device requires power to operate, and can be installed by an approved nbn™ installer or service provider.

Speeds currently available to a consumer are 12/1, 25/5 Mbps, 50/20 Mbps and 100/40 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. The 25/5, 50/20 and the 100/40 are considered Fast Internet connections with the 100/40 one called Super Fast. 50/20 has become more used since the ACCC made RSPs be more accurate about what speeds could be achieved.

nbn™ Fixed Wireless:
While the specific technology used to provide wireless broadband services varies, each service provider uses radio frequencies to transmit and receive data between their customers and a local transmission point. Normally, this requires a number of base stations, similar to mobile phone towers, which transmit to customers who have a small transmitter/receiver connected to their computers or other digital devices.

In the case of the nbn™ Fixed Wireless it uses 4G LTE connectivity, similar to the 4G LTE provided by mobile broadband providers. Because of the fixed number of premises each tower will supply, the throughput of a fixed wireless nbn™ connection should be more consistent than that of a mobile broadband connection.

An nbn™ fixed wireless connection is typically used in circumstances where the distance between premises can be many kilometres. In this circumstance data travels from a transmission tower located as much as 14kms from a premises to a rooftop antenna that has been fitted by an approved nbn™ Installer. This distance can easily be covered by optic fibre but was seen to be a cheaper answer than FTTP in rural and lightly populated areas.

Fixed wireless connections also require an nbn™ network device to be installed at the point where the cable from the roof antenna enters your home. This device requires power to operate, and can only be installed by an approved nbn™ Installer or service provider.

Speeds currently available to a consumer are 12/1 Mbps, 25/5 Mbps, and 50/20 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. NBNCo has announced that in early 2018 the 100/40 Mbps tier will be made available.

nbn™ Sky Muster Satellite:
Common in rural and remote areas, broadband satellite uses a home radio link and radio dish to bounce a signal off a satellite and down to an earth station. It’s used for fast Internet access and sometimes phone calls.

One-way satellite connections utilise a satellite link to download data to the broadband user and a standard telephone connection for uploading data back to the Internet.

Two-way satellite connections use the satellite link to both upload and download information.

A Sky Muster™ connection (which is a 2-Way link) is available in some circumstances where a home or business is located in a remote or rural location. In this scenario, a satellite dish is installed on the premises and receives the nbn™ network signal from the Sky Muster™ satellite.

Sky Muster™ satellite connections also require an NBN Co approved modem to be installed near the point where the cable from the roof satellite dish enters your home or business. This device requires power to operate, and can only be installed by an approved nbn™ Installer or service provider.

Speeds currently available are 12/1 Mbps and 25/5 Mbps. These are maximum speeds in each tier and the speed you pay for may not be reached. There is also a limit per month of what bandwidth you can use, @gordon has clarified this.

Thank you gordon for the more precise information

NBN Co is increasing data allowances for people connected via sky muster satellite.

As at 11/2017 @gordon has confirmed the increased allowance is now in place and is a 50% peak increase and a 100% off peak increase in their plan eg if 30 GB peak & 50 GB off peak your allowance is now 45 GB peak & 100 GB off peak.

Fibre to the Curb (FTTC):
Fibre to the Curb will see NBN Co deliver fibre all the way to the telecom pit outside a premises where the fibre then connects with a small Distribution Point Unit (DPU) that then uses the existing copper line to deliver fast broadband to the premises over a (usually) relatively short distance. Also because of the (usually) short run of copper much higher speeds of transmission are possible than with the longer runs of FTTN.

This has two main advantages according to NBN Co:

Firstly, because they use the existing copper line where possible, they won’t usually have to dig a new lead-in conduit to run a line into the premises – they say this will be saving significant time and money.

Secondly, because the DPUs are reverse-powered from the end-user premises, they are also saved the expense of designing and implementing new physical connections to the power grid, as they have to do for a regular FTTN Cabinet – again they say saving significant time and money.

There is not a substantial cost to the end-user in reverse powering the DPU. The cost of reverse powering the DPU is likely to be less than the equivalent cost of the end-user providing power to a Network Termination Device (NTD) on a GPON-based Fibre-to-the-Premise (FTTP) network. Translation: it’s likely a lower power requirement per household than is used by the box you would have installed on your home if you had FTTP.



There are several costs that each RSP must pay to NBN Co for each connection they have to consumers.

I have copied the following, and amended as needed, from a previous answer I made in a topic:

AVC (Access Virtual Circuit)
AVC (Access Virtual Circuit) is the way each subscriber has their traffic identified in the network. Access Seekers (normally your RSP) generally buy 1 AVC per subscriber they have. This is the first part of the NBN Co Wholesale pricing. Built into this is a “free” 50 kbps per AVC and there is a monthly fee for this AVC and this is based on the speed tier for each AVC ie 12/1, 25/5, 50/20, and 100/40 each have a different monthly fee.

Backhaul typically refers to the side of the network that communicates with the global Internet and normally refers to your RSPs connection from the POI (Point of Interconnect) to their network presence and the wider internet. But the nbn™ also has Backhaul as per this from NBN Co “The infrastructure required to connect new developments to the wider telecommunications network – typically an optical fibre link – is called ‘backhaul’. nbn™ backhaul typically involves a connection from the new development to an nbn™ network access point that has capacity to service the new development.” All these have costs involved, some are one off, others ongoing.

From Tektel training some explanations to help you understand POI, CSA, and CVC:
“The nbn™ comprises multiple “Connectivity Serving Areas” or CSA, each with a “Point of Interconnect” or POI to which Access Seekers (RSPs) connect their respective backhaul infrastructure. Access Seekers purchase a “Connectivity Virtual Circuit” (CVC) for each Connectivity Serving Area they wish to cover. The CVC is essentially a bandwidth pipe, the size determined by the cost. The larger the CVC, the better the service to subscribers within the Connectivity Serving Area.”

CVC costs have been changed several times and from the NBN Co website is this explanation "The new CVC pricing model calculates a level of CVC discount based on an individual RSP’s average CVC capacity purchased per service.

The more CVC an RSP buys for its customers, the cheaper it gets (the higher the ratio of CVC per service the bigger the discount the RSP receives from NBN Co).

This new model works at any scale; it does not matter whether an RSP has a small or large amount of customers. The discount is calculated on the CVC ratio per service, so all RSPs can obtain the same level of discount, regardless of their size."

CVC is the second component of the NBN Co pricing for the nbn™ and this has a monthly cost based on the Mbps the RSP wants (eg 25,000 customers X $15.25 (this is an example not actual cost) Mth/Mbps X 1 Mbps/customer = $381,250 per mth). Each CSA until 30,000 premises have been connected in it gets a “free” 150 Mbps CVC.

The average CVC per consumer purchased by RSPs is a little over 1 Mbps (this is from Dec 2017) and has climbed somewhat from earlier days. Some RSP buy more than others and thus it is variable depending on who your RSP is. This increasing trend probably reflects partly/largely the discounting that the NBN Co have instituted.

The CVC is not purchased per consumer but rather as a block of bandwidth per POI that is shared with every customer they have on that POI. This as an example would mean RSP C would buy 100 Mbps of CVC then as they have 10,000 customers all on 25/5 Mbps plans they would share that 100 Mbps with every customer. As most customers are not on 24 hours a day the share might mean that most get the 25/5 Mbps package they paid for most days of the year. If all were on at one time this would mean that everyone would get 100/10,000 Mbps/customer of bandwidth ie 0.01 Mbps/customer (a very poor bandwidth).

Then there is a monthly cost for each POI connection and this is the third component. Finally, there is a one-off POI connection fee that is paid when the initial POI connection is made. POI monthly charges are based on distance of the connected length to the RSP’s backhaul ie 10 km or 40 km and speed of the link ie 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps. Highest price is for the 10 Gbps/40km option which is about $1000 per month. The one-off POI cost for this package is also the highest at about $35,000.

RSP Costs
Added to these costs are the internal costs for each RSP to provide their services to each consumer. These costs may include and are not limited to, payments to a WSP if used, maintenance and supply of their own equipment and backhaul, wages and salaries, dividends to shareholders, and taxes.

Regional Broadband Scheme: (RBS) tax
Although not yet Law there is a tax which will be levied on each RSP for each customer they have. The Tax will be a maximum of $7.10 per month (indexed annually to the CPI) per nbn™ customer and the ACCC has allowed the tax to be passed onto the customers. The Senate Committee reviewing the proposed tax have said it should be passed into law, this is current state of the discussion as at April 2019. It is called the "Regional Broadband Scheme: (RBS) tax and is designed to help fund the cost of services to regional areas.

nbn™ New Development Charge
There is a one off cost to all users in Greenfield areas if they wish to connect to the nbn™, this will not affect Satellite users (who all also considered Greenfield). It is called the nbn™ New Development Charge and is currently $300 per connection. This charge is to help offset the cost of creating the new connection in new estates.

“As of April 1 (2016) NBN Co will implement a $300 charge for all connections made in areas they have identified as within the boundary of a new development. The decision was made to shift the cost of infrastructure onto the “parties that use or benefit from them”. The charge is a partial recovery cost for nbn™ for providing telecommunications infrastructure in new development areas.”

Please note that as the nbn™ matures all the above costs may vary from when this Wiki was created. Depending on when you read this you may need to search online for more current figures but we will try to keep them up to date as possible.



The fibre cable from the nbn™ is connected to the house by a nbn™ Utility Box which then, normally unless you need an external connection, connects to a nbn™ Connection Box, also known as a Network Termination Device (NTD) which has a Power Supply connected to it (this must be connected to a spare power point, no adapters or powerboards).

If you have a Medical or another need to have a continuous service you can request a backup battery that comes installed in the power supply. FTTP is the only service that can have the backup battery fitted. The first battery if required or requested comes already fitted. Ask your service provider (RSP) whether it will supply subsequent replacement batteries (and whether there is any charge involved) or whether you should purchase them yourself from a store. They will also be responsible for letting you know when your battery is worn out and needs replacement, or when your battery is missing.

A standard FTTP installation of nbn™ equipment allows you to plug a landline phone directly into the nbn™ connection box. If you want to keep using any of the existing phone sockets in your place, rewiring will be needed.

In this case, you’ll need to consider which sockets you’d like the nbn™ network connected to and then contact a phone or internet provider or a registered cabler and ask for a quote on the cost of the internal wiring.

Before your installation appointment, you will need to think about where you want the nbn™ connection box and power supply to be installed inside your house. Typically, the installer will place it as near as possible to the outside utility box but you can ask for it to be placed elsewhere, as long as it’s still on an external wall and it doesn’t require more than 40 metres of cabling (this is free). This could involve some negotiating with the installer.

Use this checklist to help you pick the best location:
• Reasonably close to a power point.
• A cool, dry, ventilated area (nbn™ network supplied equipment cannot be installed in a damp or wet area such as a kitchen, bathroom, laundry or under a window that opens).
• Away from busy areas where it may be knocked or damaged.
• Somewhere easy for you to see and to check the indicator lights.
• In the same building as the main electric meter box or distribution board (i.e. not in a separate detached garage or outhouse).

The Fibre cable terminates at the Node and the data is then passed through the copper circuit, from the Node to your premises the existing copper wiring is used. You will need a VDSL2 supporting modem to use the nbn™ system. Some people already have modems that are nbn™ ready so it is best to check with your RSP to ensure you don’t need a new one. They will supply you with one if needed, there may be a cost for the modem if they do send you one. You will need a spare power supply point for the modem (powerboards or adapters are acceptable)

If you wish to use your phone, it or the phone’s base unit (depending on what type of phone you have) will be plugged in the VOIP port on the modem which will be plugged into one of your current phone sockets. You don’t need a special phone, many of the phones already in homes can be used including those that have extra wireless handsets. If you have more than one phone socket and you want to use all or some of your existing phone sockets in the house some rewiring will need to be done and you should contact your phone or internet provider or a registered cabler and ask for a quote on the cost of the internal rewiring.

The distance you are from the node will determine the maximum speed you can get, this is measured by the length the copper wiring from the node to your house not by the distance the node is physically from you. In some situations, your connection may be to a micro node which then connects to a larger Node, this is to reduce the length of the copper wiring that is used if the larger Node is some distance from you.

FTTB will be very similar to this but the Cabinet/Node where the fibre cable runs to will be located in an area where the building’s telecommunication wiring is centralized such as a building’s communications room and then the existing wiring to the apartments will be used to complete the connections. A modem in the apartment will be required.

In some buildings/complexes where FTTB will be used, do have Optic Fibre connections and in these cases the individual connections will continue to use that fibre for their nbn™ connection. They will have a different termination structure to that of copper and will look and operate more like a FTTP connection.

Just like FTTN & FTTB the final length of the connection to your premises will be copper and will connect inside your premises just like FTTN. There will be a small unit called a Distribution Point Unit (DPU) in the pit outside which will connect the copper to the Fibre, the DPU has 4 ports so it is likely that each DPU will supply 4 premises so perhaps every 2nd or 3rd pit will have a DPU in it. The DPU will be powered from your premises probably by using something similar to Power over Ethernet (PoE) which is just a way of using some of the wires in an ethernet cable to carry power.

While the information below is correct currently (Sept 2017), new HFC connections are not likely to take place and instead will be replaced by FTTC. The reason for this change is because the old cable infrastructure from Optus and others was quite expensive to upgrade due to it’s current condition, It was cheaper to use FTTC instead.

If your area is supplied with cable already, it is likely that you will get the nbn™ connection over that cable. The cable will be connected to a box on the outside wall which will then run to a coaxial wall outlet and then to a nbn™ connection box (which requires a spare power point nearby) in your home. Your router/gateway will connect to this connection box and your phone, if you want one, will connect to the router/gateway.

If you have a pay TV service then the installer will supply a splitter so that you can connect both the connection box and your pay TV device. More than three cables in total may require the installation of an RF amplifier.

Again, like with FTTN & FTTP, if you wish to use other phone sockets in your house this will require some rewiring.

The placement of the coaxial wall plate can be up to 25 m of cable length away from the outside box. Any more than 25 m will likely compromise the quality of the signal but up to 40 m is able to be negotiated. The installer may not be able to place the plate where you wish depending on a number of OH&S and building factors eg power cabling, gas pipes, roof height.

Fixed Wireless:
A radio signal survey will be conducted to make sure your home or business can receive a high quality broadband service via fixed wireless. Fixed wireless services are dependent on a clear line of sight from the building to the fixed wireless facility. If the signal is not strong enough they will not be able to continue with the installation.

If everything is okay, the installer will place an antenna (dish) on your building pointing at the Wireless tower. Inside your building an nbn™ connection box will be fitted, it must have a nearby power point. Again, up to 40 m of cabling can be fitted from the antenna to the inside box but no more than 25 m is recommended for signal quality. From the connection box, you will then need to connect your router for internet and - where relevant - VOIP.

If using your phone with VOIP and you wish to use more than one phone socket your building will need rewiring. However Fixed Wireless is one of only two services under the nbn™ that allow for use of the old copper circuit for phone services (the other service is the Sky Muster™ Satellite). If you wish to continue using your copper line for phone services ensure the RSP you choose to use will support your choice. If not then you may need to use VOIP (via the Fixed Wireless) if you want a “landline” phone.

nbn™ Sky Muster Satellite:
Before you get the installation, you’ll need to think about where you want the nbn™ supplied modem to be installed on a wall inside your house near an accessible power point.

The ideal place will be:
• In a cool, dry ventilated area
• Away from busy areas where it may be knocked and damaged

You’ll also need to consider how you want to connect your devices (computers, smartphones, tablets and fixed phones) and if you plan to use voice over IP. Please note that as a Sky Muster™ satellite user you also have the option of retaining a copper landline telephone.

On the day, your installer will suggest the best location for the satellite dish. Once agreed, your Installer will generally mount an outdoor satellite dish on the roof, gutter or wall of your premises. The installer will then drill a small hole through your roof, gutter or wall and feed the cable from the satellite dish into the nbn™ approved and supplied modem (also known as a Network Termination Device or indoor unit). This box will be installed on a wall inside your home or business and they will be able to use up to 40 m of cable to make the connection but similar to HFC and Fixed Wireless the length is recommended to be no more than 25 m.

The nbn™ Sky Muster™ dish will be installed at your premises in a location that has an appropriate direct line-of-sight to an nbn™ Sky Muster™ satellite. Generally, they will install the satellite dish with a mounting on the roof or wall. If they cannot find an appropriate location on your roof or wall, the installer may look for another suitable location. Once the location for the satellite dish is selected your installer will conduct a signal survey to ensure your premises is able to receive a good quality Sky Muster™ signal. If that survey does not confirm that you can receive a service of the right strength, they will not be able to proceed with the installation.

In this instance, you will need to talk to your phone or internet provider to investigate other connection options. Some of the reasons why a signal may not be sufficient could include screening by trees or cliffs.

Once your nbn™ supplied equipment has been installed and tested, and your internet provider has completed their set-up, you’ll be able to connect the devices you use to access the internet. For instructions on the best way to connect to the internet, please contact your internet provider before the day of the installation.

The nbn™ supplied modem has four data ports on the back of it. Your phone or internet provider can tell you which port(s) have been activated on your nbn™ supplied modem. Please don’t plug things into ports other than the one your installer advises, as the other ports will be inactive.



The biggest issue will be loss of power at your premises. As all of these require power at your premises to run the equipment, such as your modem or your landline phone, that connect you to the Internet via the nbn™, in the event of power loss/failure/blackout you will have no connection.

FTTN is a shared service and subject to network congestion.

FTTN because of the longer runs of copper the length of the copper cable matters. Where the length of copper exceeds 400 m for FTTN (or 150 m for FTTC) speeds can drop off sharply. Also faces issues with ageing/degraded copper wiring, bad joins, water and other contaminants in the pit/s. The further you are away from the node the less speed you will be able to achieve. Most of the copper circuit is quite old and will likely need to be replaced within 3 years of the complete nbn™ rollout which is envisaged to be around 2020.

Speeds obtainable, for example, Craig Levy, Chief operating officer at TPG, stated, “… with NBN FTTN we are not allowed to lodge a fault unless the line performs less than 12 Mbit/s sync speed”.

Existing telephony wiring compatibility with VDSL2.

FTTN issues of VDSL2 modem compatibility with nbn™ FTTN, with non-compatible equipment leading to port locking. NBN Co does not make public a list of compliant modems.

Voice over IP (VOIP) services on FTTN may require the use of a VDSL modem supplied by the retail service provider (RSP). Whilst a number of RSPs publish the necessary settings to enable Voice over IP whilst connecting to the nbn™ using third party modems, others including Telstra do not.

Both for FTTB & FTTN if the Node loses power you will also lose your connection. FTTC because it uses Fibre after the DPU will only be affected if power is lost at your home or at the Exchange (FAN or AN).

Fires and lightning strikes on nodes or the copper wiring, flooding are other serious concerns for these types of connection.

This is the most robust of the ways we can connect. Fibre is unaffected by water, is mostly corrosion resistant, is able to withstand extremes of hot and cold, is resistant to lightning strikes. As most of the cable is underground strong winds such as from cyclones are largely ignored. However, power loss is a weakness, this can be somewhat circumvented by having a backup battery installed (which will allow communications for about a maximum of about 4 hours) or having some other means of powering the NTD eg an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) or a generator. If the exchange loses power you will also lose your connection but this is a very rare incident.

Again Power supply is the biggest threat to service and there are several points this can occur. The places mostly are your premises, the poles or pits where power is required, and at the Nodes.

The Coaxial cables as they use copper suffer some of the issues shared by FTTN eg corrosion, water ingress, fires, lightning. If the cable is carried by poles then vehicles damaging the poles and in the case of cyclones the wires and poles can be destroyed or severely damaged.

The poor state of the current Optus Cable network has lead to a revision on how much cable will be used. The plan has now been changed to using FTTC in the areas where HFC is still to be implemented (late 2017 is the anticipated change over to using FTTC). This date has crept further from the original anticipated date and some work will still be occurring with HFC into at least 2020.

HFC is a shared service and subject to network congestion.

Sky Muster Satellite:
Satellite has fewer points of issue when it comes to power. These are your premises, the Satellite (if this occurs it is a big issue) and the Exchange/Satellite Transmission site (rare events).

But Satellite communications are greatly affected by rain and clouds which hamper the signals, also solar activity can be very disruptive (normally for short periods). Ongoing extended Sky Muster™ satellite outages, with ongoing work to improve service.

Satellite has very limited bandwidth and as such very limited allowances for data and speeds, coupled with large lag/latency (the time difference between something being sent and being received at the other end).

Fixed Wireless:
The connection Towers, like exchanges, have backup power but NBN Co advises not to be reliant on this. They are subject to lightning strikes, cyclones, in some cases flooding. Loss of power at your premises will also result in loss of connectivity.

Fixed wireless connections to the nbn™ have issues regarding response times, line of sight issues and limited data allowances.

All Connections:
NBN Co advises if you require uninterrupted voice communications and use the nbn™ that you should have a charged mobile phone available. If you retain copper lines for phone calls (accessing the Internet via Satellite or Fixed Wireless) your phone connectivity will generally remain during a power outage - but you should remain aware of other issues that can disrupt analogue telephony (and if your telephone relies on an external source of power, it will be unusable unless it has battery backup).

Because of the many types of connections available used under the MTM NBN, the upkeep costs have been increased substantially [ &]. Also more varied technical expertise is required to keep the varied technologies functioning properly and again this leads to increased costs. All these costs eventually are passed onto the consumers.

CVC purchased by each RSP can also cause issues for customers. If an RSP does not have enough CVC to provide good service to their customer base, the customer can experience slowdowns, disconnections and generally poor service.

Also from Wikipedia site are these:

“The failure to provide accurate information on broadband speeds possible and/or available, including for premises able to connect to the NBN has been identified as a significant issue for end users by the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC). The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, from May 2017, will operate a broadband performance monitoring program.”

This monitoring is now ongoing and reports are released publicly

Choice Australia also looks at nbn™ performance and their results of their monitoring can be viewed at:

“In February 2014, the government produced a new MyBroadband website that provided information about existing access to the Internet. It showed that there were 1.6 million premises across Australia which have either no access to fixed broadband or very poor broadband connectivity.”

The previous Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull had said that they would be a somewhat higher priority. However before his departure from Parliament he had given no explicit direction to the NBN Co to address them.

There is concern that NBN Co and thus the nbn™ “will continue to focus on areas that already have relatively fast copper broadband, and thus avoid addressing people that have no or very limited broadband for the foreseeable future. In May 2014 NBN Co announced that it would be targeting premises that were already serviced with fibre by rival TPG.”



The theoretical capacity of fibre is somewhere past 1 petabit per second (a petabit is 1 million gigabits) per individual fibre. Currently able to be achieved is 100 Gbps per individual fibre. Fibre at this time remains the fastest way to connect.

Currently a little over 100 Mbps is achievable but new technologies that use copper are in development, e.g. XG.Fast which has achieved 8 Gbps over 70 m of copper and G.Fast which has achieved about 970 Mbps over copper of similar or shorter lengths. The hope is that with FTTB and FTTC the short runs of copper involved will allow multi Gb speeds.

Speeds of 1Gbps/100 Mbps have been achieved on HFC using the newer technology Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.1

The speed of satellite communications is around 50 Mbps but this is hindered by very high latency (also called lag - the time between signal being sent, received and acknowledged). Because the satellites are required to be in geostationary orbit (always over one particular spot on Earth), they must be at a distance of nearly 36,000km from the Earth, and must be over the equator. As this makes them distant from both the user and the end point to be accessed, it takes a significant amount of time for any data to go from sender to receiver. Any error in the data stream will then at least double this delay.

Some Internet applications are more affected by high latency than others. Online telephony and gaming require low latency, as they involve (almost) immediate interaction. Large file downloads or uploads are less affected by the high latency of satellite communications, as once the initial connection has made most delay is in transferring the data.

Fixed Wireless (NBN 4G only) & Cellular (mobile) :
nbn™ Fixed Wireless uses 4G for it’s connections and it is unlikely to be updated for sometime to a newer one eg 5G.

A 4G LTE mobile connection has a possible download speed of around 150 Mbps and an upload speed of about 50 Mbps, but this is not likely to be achieved except under the most perfect of conditions.

5G LTE has been announced, and is potentially much faster than 4G. Telstra and Optus have announced that they will commence rollout of 5G for their wireless networks (not the nbn™) in 2019. To access 5G you will need to upgrade your current equipment (e.g. your phone) to new devices that recognise 5G.



From a Press Release in 2009:

“The Rudd Government today announced the establishment of a new company to build and operate a new super fast National Broadband Network.
This new super fast National Broadband Network, built in partnership with private sector, will be the single largest nation building infrastructure project in Australian history.
This new National Broadband Network will:
• Connect 90 percent of all Australian homes, schools and workplaces with broadband services with speeds up to 100 megabits per second - 100 times faster than those currently used by many households and businesses
• Connect all other premises in Australia with next generation wireless and satellite technologies that will be deliver broadband speeds of 12 megabits per second
• Directly support up to 25,000 local jobs every year, on average, over the 8 year life of the project
Under the Rudd Government’s new national broadband network every house, school and business in Australia will get access to affordable fast broadband.

Ownership and Financing
The Rudd Government’s National Broadband Network will be built and operated by a new company specifically established by the Australian Government to carry out this project.
The Government will be the majority shareholder of this company, but significant private sector invest in the company is anticipated.
The Government will make an initial investment in this company but intends to sell down its interest in the company within 5 years after the network is built and fully operational, consistent with market conditions, and national and identity security considerations.
This company jointly owned by the Government and the private sector will invest up to $43 billion over 8 years to build the national broadband network.
The Government’s investment in the company will be funded through the Building Australia Fund and the issuance of Aussie Infrastructure Bonds (AIBs), which will provide an opportunity for households and institutions to invest in the national broadband network.
The new investment is also the biggest reform in telecommunications in two decades because it delivers separation between the infrastructure provider and retail service providers. This means better and fairer infrastructure access for service providers, greater retail competition, and better services for families and businesses.
This announcement follows the Government’s decision to terminate the NBN Request for Proposals (RFP) process on the basis of advice from the independent Panel of Experts that none of the national proposals offered value for money. The Panel noted the rapid deterioration of the global economy had a significant impact on the process.
This historic nation-building investment will help transform the Australian economy and create the jobs and businesses of the 21st century.

The new superfast network will:
• connect homes, schools and workplaces with optical fibre (fibre to the premise or ‘FTTP’), providing broadband services to Australians in urban and regional towns with speeds of 100 megabits per second - 100 times faster than those currently used by most people – extending to towns with a population of around 1,000 or more people
• use next generation wireless and satellite technologies that will be able to deliver 12 megabits per second or more to people living in more remote parts of rural Australia
• provide fibre optic transmission links connecting cities, major regional centres and rural towns
• be Australia’s first national wholesale-only, open access broadband network
• be built and operated on a commercial basis by a company established at arm’s length from Government and involve private sector investment
• be expected to be rolled-out, simultaneously, in metropolitan, regional, and rural areas.
Every person and business in Australia, no-matter where they are located, will have access to affordable, fast broadband at their fingertips.
High speed broadband is increasingly essential to the way Australians communicate, and do business. It will help drive Australia’s productivity, improve education and health service delivery and connect our big cities and regional centres.
The Government will invest in this major nation-building infrastructure to stimulate jobs in the short-term and pay a dividend to the Australian people through enhanced productivity and innovation in the long-term.
This is a major nation-building project that will support 25,000 every year, on average, over the life of the project. At its peak, it will support 37,000 jobs. Given the productivity gains associated with this investment, the full benefits will continue to flow for decades beyond the completion of the project.
The Government’s announcement today has been informed by expert advice. The Panel of Experts has encouraged the Government to invest in optical fibre technology, supplemented by next-generation wireless and satellite technologies. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has also endorsed the use of FTTP as a superior technology to Fibre to the Node.
The preliminary estimate is that the enhanced NBN network will cost up to $43 billion, which has been developed taking into account advice from specialist technical advisers.
The Government’s objective is to achieve 90 per cent coverage of the FTTP network, and remaining coverage to be delivered through wireless and satellite technologies, within this funding envelope. Initial advice to the Government is that this objective is achievable, but this estimate will be subject to an implementation study.

The Government will seek private investment in the company to draw on private sector capacity and expertise. However, ownership restrictions will be established to protect the Government’s objective of a wholesale open-access network. “

Major points

90% of the population to be connected by FTTP at speeds of 100 Mbps, this included towns of at least a population of 1,000.

The rest who lived in very remote areas and communities smaller than 1,000 people would be serviced by Satellite and wireless with speeds of around 12 Mbps (this was fast for that time and even now would be much faster than many can get).

Provide fibre optic transmission links connecting cities, major regional centres and rural towns.



Malcolm Turnbull while Minister for Communications under Tony Abbott’s Prime Ministership unveiled the LNP Governments plan to restructure the NBN to 1) Save Costs & 2) Speed up the delivery of the NBN.

To achieve these stated aims some rather radical changes were made to the Rudd Plan:

• FTTP was no longer the primary connection method for the majority of Australia
• FTTN, FTTB, HFC (Hybrid Fibre Coaxial) as well as the already slated NBN Fixed Wireless and Satellite became the way the majority of Australians would connect
• Telstra would sell it’s existing copper network to the NBN for the FTTN connections
• Foxtel, Optus and other cable providers would either sell or open their cable networks to the NBN for the HFC connections

Percentages of customers who would be connecting by the various means are as follows:

• FTTP 25-28%
• FTTN, FTTC, & FTTB roughly 40% (Because of the change from HFC to FTTC slated for 2017 this percentage will go up)
• HFC roughly 34% (From 2017 the plan is now to connect to FTTC so this percentage will drop)
• NBN Fixed Wireless roughly 5%
• Sky Muster Satellite the remainder


The highest limit I have seen is 70GB peak + 80GB off-peak (1am to 7am) per month, but it is very expensive at $205/month for the 25/5Mbps and $200/month for the 12/1Mbps plan


@grahroll Good to see so much useful information in one post . Thank you for the time and effort . NBN was screaming out for a Wiki and you delivered ,



The NBN Wholesale site provides a PDF document of the roll-outs with dates they have been or will be completed and the dates they will be or have been disconnected from the copper network. As the list is dynamic (it changes as required) it is linked below.

If you wish to find your area, open the pdf and search for your suburb, there may be several entries depending on the suburb size and makeup eg FTTP and FTTN. If you would like to find what sort of connection you may be getting you need to copy the NBN Co’s Rollout Region Identifier (eg 4SGI-21) for your area from the document and search using a search engine for that identifier or use the list at to look it up:

If you can’t find your location on either of the previous two links try the link, following this paragraph, from Telstra (It is an Excel list so will require some type of spreadsheet office program). It is a dynamic document and will change due to the changing NBN rollout. Please note there are two sections to this document one is “Actual RFS” (Ready for Service) and “Expected RFS”. If you can’t locate your area on the Actual then try the Expected listings.


Excellent - thank you very much for doing this



The Technology Choice Program devised by nbn™ is a way for people to pay to change the nbn™ access technology they are receiving. There are two types of applications that can be submitted for a technology switch: Area Switch and Individual Premises Switch. There are costs to apply and there are costs to implement. These costs can be very substantial. The included links for each type of switch can give you more detail about the costs and what is involved.

Area Switch:
Area switch enables an application for a whole area (e.g. a business park, town, CBD, or Multi Dwelling Unit (MDU)) via one contracting party.

Individual Switch:
Individual Premises Switch caters for a single premises per application. Individual premises which share infrastructure in a specific location may be able to share some costs if they apply at the same time.


A truly impressive job. Thanks heaps.

@BrendanMays Is there any way to store this and sort the entries to make it easy for us to access and utilize?


Interesting… Our suburb’s exchange does not appear on either the rollout list or the SAM list.

YAY! I hope that we won’t be forced to connect for as long as possible, due to the copper here abouts being rancid.


Announcement from my ISP, nbnco is increasing data allowances for people connected via sky muster satellite. The relevant part of the notification:

…we will be increasing your data allowance at no extra cost as a result of nbn co increasing the amount of data allowed for end users in October 2017.

The great news is that you don’t have to do anything, we will automatically increase your data allowance for the same price you currently pay.

We will advise you when the change has taken place, and your new data allowance, as soon as nbn advises they have made the necessary changes to their network.


Hi @meltam, I’d suggest utilising the forum’s bookmark function if you’d like to store the post. When using the search bar at the top, you should see the option to ‘Search this topic’ only - as a quick way to sort through the post to find any specific entries. The posts are also set to ‘wiki’ so others can make updates as needed.

No doubt we could improve on this existing functionality, so feel free to make suggestions on the best way to organising content like this and we can consider it for future development. Also, thanks again @grahroll for putting together this useful guide :thumbsup:


Hi @BrendanMays

Thank you. I had forgotten about bookmarking, but what I was thinking was: ‘Wikis’ deserve to have their own heading under the choice community banner say after ‘New’?

This would separate this and other knowledge repositories away from the informal discussions.


Agreed - it would be great to highlight the wiki functionality in a more meaningful way. We’ll explore this as a future development item :thumbsup:


Thank you, @grahroll. A very useful set of information in one accessible place.